What governance strategies, models, and implementation methods are available for interoperability? In Europe, transport network strategies may be based on either public or private-sector MaaS. In an environment where reconciling business secrecy and sharing customer information can be a challenge, the issue of disintermediation is key. In the future, models may be multifaceted and adjustable – but will require the involvement of trusted third parties. As various forms of MaaS continue to emerge, interoperability is becoming a crucial issue. Implementing standardised interfaces, and networking MaaS solutions together, will be necessary to cover areas that may include multiple local, regional, national, and sometimes even international authorities.